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A Glimpse at the History of Microscope

In the 17th century, it was discovered that combining two convex lenses increased significantly the magnification, and this device was the microscope's predecessor.

The first true microscope, a combination of a piece of convex lens and a piece of concave lens overlapped, also known as a compound microscope, was made by Dutch opticians Jensen and his sons, and later improved by Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, which made the microscope brings a better effect.  

The first microscopes were simple, only magnifying 50-200 times, but later they were improved and developed gradually. The optical microscope could magnify objects up to about 1500 times and could observe the shape of bacteria.  

In 1932, German scientists Noel and Ruska made the world's first electron microscope in Berlin. The electron microscope uses an electron beam instead of a light beam and a magnetic field instead of a lens to observe tiny objects.

The electron microscope instantly increased the magnification to 10,000 times. By the 1990s, the world had developed an electron microscope with a magnification of 2 million times, and people used it to see matter.

Fine structure of the interior of the atom. Seeing that all matter is made up of tiny, tiny particles that are invisible to the naked eye. discovered the atomic world. in 1983. People have invented the scanning tunneling microscope. This microscope is more advanced than the electron microscope. Since the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope, the world has seen the birth of a microscope that studies on a scale from 0.1 nm to 100 nm. The new discipline of objects is nanotechnology.  

As early as the first century B.C., it was discovered that it was possible to magnify tiny objects when they were viewed through a spherical transparent object. Gradually, the laws that enable spherical glass surfaces to magnify and image objects became known.  

In 1590, Dutch and Italian eyeglass makers had already created microscope-like magnification instruments.

In 1665, Hooke: the term "cell" was derived from Hooke's use of the compound microscope to observe plants' Derived from tiny pores in the cork tissue.  

In 1674, the report of the discovery of protozoology was published by Leeuwenhoek, and nine years later became the first person to discover the existence of "bacteria".  

In 1838, Schlieden and Schwann, both advocated cytology. published "nucleated cells are fundamental to the organization and function of all plants and animals".  

In 1881, the Retziue: Animal Tissue Report was published, a publication that no one had yet surpassed. Twenty years later, however, a group of histologists, led by Cajal, developed the microscopic staining method of observation. This laid the groundwork for future microscopic anatomy.  

In 1882, Koch discovers stained microbial tissues with benzoan dye, which led to his discovery of cholera and tubercle bacillus. Over the next 20 years, other bacteriologists, like Klebs and Pasteur, used this device to detect the cause of many diseases by examining dye chemicals under a microscope.

In 1886, Zeiss (Tsai)  has breaken the theoretical limits of general visible light. The inventions of Abbey formula and of a series of lenses opened up another new world of interpretation for microscopists.  

In 1898, Golgi discovered the Golgi apparatus in bacteria. He stained the cells with silver nitrate and achieved a major step in the study of human cells.

In1924, Lacassagne developed radiography with his experimental partners. The invention was the use of radioactive polonium to probe biological specimens.

In 1930, Lebedeff designed and equipped the first interference microscope. The phase difference microscope was invented by Zernicke in 1932, and the two men developed the traditional optical microscope and made it work. The extension of phase-difference observation allowed biologists to observe the details of stained living cells.  

In 1941, Antibodies is coupled with a fluorescent dye to detect cellular antigens. In 1952, he has invented the interferometric phase-difference optical system. This invention is not only patented but also named after the inventor himself.  

In 1981, Allen and Inoue enhancd images on the principle of optical microscopy. In 1988, the Confocal (conjugate focus) scanning microscope was widely used in the market.

The history of microscope spans centuries and the inventors and the developer of microscope use their wisdom to perfect the design and the function of microscope. However Leeuwenhoek’s first design has remained unchanged since the 1600’s.


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